Color Coded Latin: A Teaching Method
by Kathleen Canning
Download "Color Coded" Latin Teaching Method
- Color Chart
- First Declension
- Second Declension
- Third Declension
- Fourth Declension
- Fifth Declension
- First Conjugation
- Second Conjugation
- Third Conjugation
- Fourth Conjugation
- Irregular Verbs
- Latin Sentences Using Declensions and Conjugations
- The Genitive Case
- The Dative Case
- Prepositional Phrases
- Interrogative Pronouns
- Demonstrative Pronouns
- Subjunctive ARE Verbs
- Subjunctive Long ERE 2nd Conjugation Verbs
- Subjunctive ERE 3rd Conjugation Verbs
- Subjunctive I-Stem 3rd Conjugation Verbs
- Subjunctive IRE 4th Conjugation Verbs
Matching Adjectives and Nouns
Adjective: a part of speech that modifies nouns and pronouns
In Latin adjectives MUST agree with the noun they modify in 3 ways:
- Case - If the noun/pronoun is nominative the adjective must be nominative
- Number - If the noun/pronoun is plural the adjective must be plural
- Gender - If the noun/pronoun is masculine the adjective must be masculine
- * Adjectives do not have to be in the same declension as the nouns/pronouns they modify.
- With minor adjustments we will turn the 1st & 2nd declension noun charts to 2nd declension adjective charts.
- With minor adjustments we will turn the 3rd declension I- stem charts to 3rd declension adjective charts.
- Listed below are the steps we will take to match the nouns and adjectives:
- 3-(__ is*)
- 4-(us-us*) (u-us*)
Step 1. Identify the declension of the noun. (use the genitive* singular to identify the declension).
- Use the noun charts to find the correct case, gender and number of the noun
- Use the adjective charts (2nd declension or 3rd declension) to find the case, number and gender of the adjective that matches the noun
- Note the differences between the noun chart and the adjective chart:
- In the noun chart ,1st declension dative and ablative have an alternate abus ending
- In the noun chart, 2nd declension nominative singular uses a IUS and a double II in the nominative plural
- In the noun chart ,3rd declension I- stem M /F & N the ablative singular is E
- Make those few changes and you can use the 1st, 2nd and 3rd I- Stem declension charts to work with adjectives.
(Find the changes below)
- Vocabulary for 2nd declension adjectives will include words ending in us-a-um-r:
- Vocabulary for 3rd declension adjectives includes adjectives of:
3 endings [ m-f-n] acer-acris-acre endings [m&f - n] omnis-omnis-omne 1 ending [m f n ] audax-audax-audax
Third Declension adjectives come in three types. Some adjectives have a separate termination for the M-F &N(3). Some combine the M&F and have a separate N(2). Others use only one spelling for all three genders, however, they will adhere to the neuter rule.(1)
Reminder: The neuter rule means that all neuter nominatives and accusatives will be the same and in the plural end in A.
Samples: 3) acer sharp/fierce (2)omnis all (1)audax bold M-s F-s N-s M-pl F-pl N-pl Nominative acer acris acre acres acres acria Genitive acris acris acris acrium acrium acrium Dative acri acri acri acribus acribus acribus Accusative acrem acrem acre acres acres acria Ablative acri acri acri acribus acribus acribus M /F-s N-s M/F-pl N-pl omnis omne omnes omnia omnis omnis omnium omnium omni omni omnibus omnibus omnem omne omnes omnia omni omni omnibus omnibus M/F-s N-s M/F-pl N-pl audax audax audaces audacia audacis audacis audacium audacium audaci audaci audacibus audacibus audacem audax audaces audacia audaci audaci audacibus audacibus
2-M 1-F 2-N 3M/F 3N I-3 M/F/N 4M 4N 5f US/IUS/R. A UM __ __ __ __ US U ES I AE I IS IS IS IS US US EI O AE O I I I I UI U EI UM AM UM EM __ EM __ UM U EM O A O E E E E U U E I/II AE A ES A ES IA US UA ES ORUM ARUM ORUM UM UM IUM IUM UUM UUM ES IS IS(abus) IS IBUS IBUS IBUS IBUS IBUS IBUS EBUS OS AS A ES A ES IA US UA ES IS IS(abus) IS IBUS IBUS IBUS IBUS U U E
2nd and 3rd Declension Adjective Charts
Nominative US A UM ___ ___ Genitive I AE I IS IS Dative O AE O I I Accusative UM AM UM EM ___ Ablative O A O I I Nominative I AE A ES IA Genitive ORUM ARUM ORUM IUM IUM Dative IS IS IS IBUS IBUS Accusative OS AS A ES IA Ablative IS IS IS IBUS IBUS
Vocabulary from the 5 declensions and from 2nd and 3rd declension adjectives:
* will signal an I-Stem or a double I
girl (f) puella puellae farmer (m) agricola agricolae country (f) patria patriae poet (m) poeta poetae woman (f) femina feminae lieutenant (m) legatus legati messenger (m)* nuntius nunti boy (m) puer pueri field (m) ager agri friend (m) amicus amici soldier (m) miles militis sister (f) soror sororis enemy (m)* hostis hostis city (f)* urbs urbis animal (n)* animal animalis king (m) rex regis army (m) exercitus exercitus wave (m) fluctus fluctus attack (m) impetus impetus horn (n) cornu cornus wing of the army (n) cornu cornus day (m/f) dies diei line of battle (f) acies aciei thing (f) res rei hope (f) spes spei noon (m) meridies meridiei
Nominative and genitive of 2nd declension adjectives US/ER:
M F N bonus bona bonum boni bonae boni M F N bad malus a um good bonus a um high altus a um long longus a um free liber a um keep the (e) sacred sacer a um drop the (e)
Nominative and genitive of 3rd declension adjectives:
(3) endings M F N fierce acer acris acre acris acris acris (2) endings M&F N same similis simile similis similis all omnis omne omnis omnis (1) ending M_F_N bold audax audacis
audax *will follow the neuter rule. Ergo the nominative, neuter s. will be audax and the plural audacia.
The following drills will use the charts in this section and the vocabulary in this section. Just remember to match the nouns and adjectives by case number & gender. I would suggest running off the charts and vocabulary and keeping them in front of you while you work in the following section.
If I gave you the singular do the same drill in the plural. If I gave you the plural do the drill in the singular.
nom. pl. good girl bonae puellae gen.s. bad boy boni pueri dat.pl. sacred goddess sacris filiabus acc. s. good messenger bonum nuntium nom. pl bold enemy audaces hostes* gen. s. fierce sister acris sororis acc. pl. all animals omnia animalia* acc.s bad king malum regem nom.s. same woman similis femina dat.s. bold leader audaci duci acc.s. bold animal audax animal*
The good news is that once you have mastered this, the rest of Latin is actually quite simple and straightforward.