Verb Charts - First Conjugation Indicative and Subjunctive
© 2012 by Ed Kotski and Kathleen Canning
laudo laudare laudavi laudatus a um
Present Imperative Singlular = Lauda ___Present Imperative Plural = Laudate
|Laudo||I praise||Laudor||I am praised|
|Laudas||You praise||Laudaris||You are praised|
|Laudat||He praises||Laudatur||He is praised|
|Laudamus||We praise||Laudamur||We are praised|
|Laudatis||You praise||Laudamini||You are praised|
|Laudant||They praise||Laudantur||They are praised|
|Laudabam||I was praising||Laudabar||I was being praised|
|Laudabas||You were praising||Laudabaris||You were being praised|
|Laudabat||He was praising||Laudabatur||He was being praised|
|Laudabamus||We were praising||Laudabamur||We were being praised|
|Laudabatis||You were praising||Laudabamini||You were being praised|
|Laudabant||They were praising||Laudabantur||They were being praised|
|Laudabo||I will praise||Laudabor||I will be praised|
|Laudabis||You will praise||Laudaberis||You will be praised|
|Laudabit||He will praise||Laudabitur||He will be praised|
|Laudabimus||We will praise||Laudabimur||We will be praised|
|Laudabitis||You will praise||Laudabimini||You will be praised|
|Laudabunt||They will praise||Laudabuntur||They will be praised|
|Laudem||I might praise||Lauder||I might be praised|
|Laudes||You might praise||Lauderis||You might be praised|
|Laudet||He might praise||Laudetur||He might be praised|
|Laudemus||We might praise||Laudemur||We might be praised|
|Laudetis||You might praise||Laudemini||You might be praised|
|Laudent||They might praise||Laudentur||They might be praised|
|Laudarem||if I were praising||Laudarer||if I were being praised|
|Laudares||if You were praising||Laudareris||if You were being praised|
|Laudaret||if He were praising||Laudaretur||if He were being praised|
|Laudaremus||if We were praising||Laudaremur||if We were being praised|
|Laudaretis||if You were praising||Laudaremini||if You were being praised|
|Laudarent||if They were praising||Laudarentur||if They were being praised|
|Laudavi||I have praised||Laudatus a um sum||I have been praised|
|Laudavisti||You have praised||Laudatus a um es||You have been praised|
|Laudavit||He has praised||Laudatus a um est||He has been praised|
|Laudavimus||We have praised||Laudati ae a sumus||We have been praised|
|Laudavistis||You have praised||Laudati ae a estis||You have been praised|
|Laudaverunt||They have praised||Laudati ae a sunt||They have been praised|
|Laudaveram||I had praised||Laudatus a um eram||I had been praised|
|Laudaveras||You had praised||Laudatus a um eras||You had been praised|
|Laudaverat||He had praised||Laudatus a um erat||He had been praised|
|Laudaveramus||We had praised||Laudati ae a eramus||We had been praised|
|Laudaveratis||You had praised||Laudati ae a eratis||You had been praised|
|Laudaverant||They had praised||Laudati ae a erant||They had been praised|
|FUTURE PERFECT||ACTIVE||FUTURE PERFECT||PASSIVE|
|Laudavero||I will have praised||Laudatus a um ero||I will have been praised|
|Laudaveris||You will have praised||Laudatus a um eris||You will have been praised|
|Laudaverit||He will have praised||Laudatus a um erit||He will have been praised|
|Laudaverimus||We will have praised||Laudati ae a erimus||We will have been praised|
|Laudaveritis||You will have praised||Laudati ae a eritis||You will have been praised|
|Laudaverint||They will have praised||Laudati ae a erunt||They will have been praised|
|Laudaverim||I might have praised||Laudatus a um sim||I might have been praised|
|Laudaveris||You might have praised||Laudatus a um sis||You might have been praised|
|Laudaverit||He might have praised||Laudatus a um sit||He might have been praised|
|Laudaverimus||We might have praised||Laudati ae a simus||We might have been praised|
|Laudaveritis||You might have praised||Laudati ae a sitis||You might have been praised|
|Laudaverint||They might have praised||Laudati ae a sint||They might have been praised|
|Laudavissem||if I had praised||Laudatus a um essem||if I had been praised|
|Laudavisses||if You had praised||Laudatus a um esses||if You had been praised|
|Laudavisset||if He had praised||Laudatus a um esset||if He had been praised|
|Laudavissemus||if We had praised||Laudati ae a essemus||if We had been praised|
|Laudavissetis||if You had praised||Laudati ae a essetis||if You had been praised|
|Laudavissent||if They had praised||Laudati ae a essent||if They had been praised|
All Forms: He = He She or It
Imperfect tables are typical for ongoing past action: I was praising.
Subjunctive typically used to express doubt, possibility, and purpose (after ut).
|Present Infinitive = laudare||Present Infinitive = laudari|
|Perfect Infinitive = laudavisse||Perfect Infinitive = laudatus a um esse|
|Future Infinitive = laudaturus a um esse||Future Infinitive = none|
|Present Participle = laudans||Present Participle = none|
|Perfect Participle = none||Perfect Participle = laudatus a um|
|Future Participle = laudaturus a um||Future Participle = laudandus a um|
The Present Participle
The present participle is a verbal adjective, sometimes a verbal noun. It takes third declension adjective endings.
Masculine and Feminine Singular and Plural: Laudan_s, tis, ti, tem, ti (or te) , tes, tium, tibus, tes, tibus.
Neuter Singular and Plural: Laudan_s, tis, ti, s, ti (or te), tia, tium, tibus, tia, tibus.
Other participles take the us a um first and second declension noun endings.
The Perfect Passive Infinitive has the same form as the Perfect Passive Participle (the 4th principal part of the verb) except the infinitive form includes esse.
*Gerundive - The Gerundive is the Future Passive Participle laudandus, laudanda, laudandum.
The Gerundive acts as a passive verbal adjective.
The Gerundive takes the set of us a um first and second declension noun endings.
The Gerundive with the verb to be indicates necessity. Example: Carthago delenda est means Carthage must (is to) be destroyed.
Gerund - The Gerund is an active verbal noun, formed from the Neuter Singular form of the Gerundive, without the Nominative Case. The gerund is sometimes shown as laudandi, laudando, laudandum, laudando (genitive through ablative, without a nominative).
When the Gerund would otherwise be a subject (and in the Nominative), the present active infinitive is used instead (Errare humanum est). English can say erring is human. Latin can not, and says to err is human.
Supine - The Supine is an independent form consisting of only two cases, the accusative and the ablative singulars. The supine grafts the fourth declension neuter accusative singular um (First Supine) or the fourth declension neuter ablative singular u (Second Supine) onto the Perfect Participle (the 4th Principal Part) in place of the us a um first and second declension endings. The first supine (laudatum) shows the purpose behind a verb of motion. Venit (motion - he came) laudatum (= to praise) fortitudines (the brave actions). The second supine (laudatu) refers an adjective back to a subject. Example: facile laudatu easy (= easily) praised.